what is dunaliella salina

What is Dunaliella salina? Though D. salina can survive in salinic environments, Martinez et al. [10], D. salina lacks a rigid cell wall, which makes the organism susceptible to osmotic pressure. The organism was fully described as a new, separate genus simultaneously by Teodoresco and Clara Hamburger of Heidelberg, Germany in 1905. [8], Due to the abundance of β-carotene, which is an anti-oxidant as well as a vitamin A precursor, D. salina is a popular pro-vitamin A food supplement and cosmetic additive. The β-carotene appears to protect the organism from long-term UV radiation that D. salina is exposed to in its typical environments. Teodoresco was the first to publish his work, so he is generally given credit for this categorization. It can be used to boost your protection against UV damage and increase … 12. Ben-Amotz A. Glycerol, β-carotene and dry algal meal production by commercial cultivation of Dunaliella. 1984;116/117:115–121. Dunaliella Salina. Food Chem Toxicol. 1989;27:221–6. It possesses Antioxidant, Antiinflammatory, Photoprotection, Antiproliferative … DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.01036.x, 4. Oren A. Biotechnol Bioengin. In addition, the role of glycerol in D. salina as a key organic compatible solute has been used as a research model [1]. Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile pink micro-algae especially found in sea salt fields. 14. Tammam A., Fakhry E. and El-Sheekh M. “Effect of salt stress on antioxidant system and the metabolism of the reactive oxygen species in Dunaliella saline and Dunaliella tertiolecta.” African 3. Dunaliella salina is a model organism to study the effects of saline adaptation in algae. “Effect of salinity on sexual activity of Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco, strain CONC-006.” Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 1995. Mixed Carotenoids. Known for its antioxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is used in cosmetics and dietary supplements. Chen BJ, Chi CH. 10. [1], Species in the genus Dunaliella are morphogically similar to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with the main exception being that Dunaliella lack both a cell wall and a contractile vacuole. Borowitzka LJ, Borowitzka MA, Moulton TP. β-carotene also contributes to the anti-oxidant effects of D. salina[11] and is used as an additive in human and animal nutrition for sources of vitamin A [3]. Dunaliella salina is a unicellular green alga found in environments with high salt concentration [1]. Sexual reproduction, the formation of two gametes into a zygospore, is affected by salt concentrations[1]. In addition, the role of glycerol in D. salina as a key organic compatible solute has been used as a … What is Dunaliella Salina? Algae Biomass. 9. n.d. doi: 10.1146/annurev.mi.37.100183.000523. Dunaliella salina extract is also a natural source of vitamin B12. Dunaliella salina is a unicellular green alga of the genus and was studied since the early 19th century, and numerous species were characterized and classified since then. 1964;42:777–778. The mitochondrial and plastid genome contains 28.3 (12 genes) and 269 kb (102 genes) respectively [9]. The taxonomy of the genus Dunaliella (Chlorophyta, Dunaliellales) with emphasis on the marine and halophilic species. Dunaliella salina is a microalga in the green algae family. Dunaliella salina,the English name Dunaliella salina,was from 3.8 billion years ago. Rejuvenal healthy aging, n.d. Low salt concentrations of 2% and 5% induced sexual activity, whereas higher salt concentration of 30% decreases sexual reproduction[10]. Gantner Verlag K.-G.. Mixed Carotenoids. Arch f Protistenkd. When applied on skin it can reverse any ongoing oxidative damage to the … Journal of Alloys and Dunaliella salina is rich in beta carotenoid, which is a provitamin A, a precursor to vitamin A. But don’t let its pedigree fool you--this little alga is bright pink! Annu Rev Microbiol. Dunaliella salina It’s an halophile microalga that grow in high salt concentrations, this fact reduces drastically the possibilities that pathogenic microorganisms can grow up. The sequencing of Dunaliella species is important to isolate different species for commercial purposes. 15. 1. Michel Felix Dunal first discovered "D. salina" in 1838 in the south of France occupying; however, it was not named until 1905 by Teodoresco [1]. Olmos J., Paniagua J. and Contreras R. “Molecular identification of Dunaliella sp. Skin Nourishment and moisturizing Dunaliella Salina contains effective mineral high concentration of … So pink, in fact, that it makes this salt lake in western Australia look like it’s made of … 603–610. 2. Eukaryota (Domain); Viridiplantae (Kingdom); Chlorophyta (Phylum); Chlorophyceae (Class); Volvocales (Order); Dunaliellaceae (Family); Dunaliella (Genus). Brock T. “Salinity and the Ecology of Dunaliella from Great Salt Lake.” Journal of General Microbiology, 1975. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1980. pp. Dunaliella Salina is a micro algae species. [9] D. salina may also be a source of vitamin B12. Dunaliella Salina Powder is obtained by Dunaliella salina through multiple processings. The chloroplast can hold large amounts of β-carotene, which makes it appear orange-red. In general, Dunaliella salina … Dunaliella salina and Dunaliella bardawil are the most important species for β-carotene production; however, other pigments and compounds like lutein, chlorophyll, glycerol, and polyunsaturated fatty acids are also produced by these and other Dunaliella … To survive, these organisms have high concentrations of β-carotene to protect against the intense light, and high concentrations of glycerol to provide protection against osmotic press… β-carotene is a type of pro-vitamin A, responsible for inhibiting the production of free radicals from ultraviolet light [3]. Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile green micro-algae especially found in sea salt fields. “A century years of Dunaliella research: 1905-2005.” Saline Systems, 2005. They belong to the category of halophiles. Lives in environments with a … Attempts have been made to exploit the high concentrations of glycerol accumulated by D. salina as the basis for the commercial production of this compound. The D. salina organelle genome sequence are circular and large with approximately 60% non-coding DNA [9]. In: Shelef G, Soeder CJ, editor. What is Dunaliella? of America, 2011. Glycerol is a compatible solute in which not only contributes to osmotic balance of the cell but also maintains enzyme activity (Brown as stated in Oren[1]). The mass culture of Dunaliella for fine chemicals: from laboratory to pilot plant. Few organisms can survive like D. salina does in such highly saline conditions as salt evaporation ponds. [4], From a first pilot plant for D. salina cultivation for β-carotene production established in the USSR in 1966, the commercial cultivation of D. salina for the production of β-carotene throughout the world is now one of the success stories of halophile biotechnology. Journal of Biotechnology, 2011. Dunaliella salina is a safe and potent source of natural beta-carotene and suitable for all types of skin disorders and inflammation. It provides a range of trace minerals and nutrients. Thus, Dunaliella salina is a hyper-halotolerant organism found in high densities in saline lakes. Dunaliella salina was thought to be responsible for the red colouring of salted brines [1]. Dunaliella sp. Known for its antioxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is used in cosmetics … Kumudha A, Sarada R. Characterization of vitamin B12 in. The GC content of "D. salina" is relatively low compared to other Chlamydomonadales at 34.4% for mitochondrial DNA and 32.1% for plastid DNA[9]. Farhat et al. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-10-83. Due to its ability to produce red pigmentation, β-carotene, the natural food colouring is highly demanded for cosmetic products[1]. 6.3.2 Spacing between electrodes. Just like other forms of algae, it is an aquatic organism that grows in salt water. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-10-83. Hydrobiologia. Although technically the production of glycerol from D. salina was shown to be possible, economic feasibility is low and no biotechnological operation exists to exploit the alga for glycerol production.[12]. 22 Nov 2012. Massjuk, N.P. It is mostly a marine organism, though there … Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile green micro-algae (phytoplankton) especially found in sea salt fields. Dunaliella salina is a genus of one-celled green microalgae first discovered in 1838 in southern France. D. salina is also adapted to solar radiation using β-carotene to protect against ionizing energy. Dunaliella salina is a special type of microalga. Lerche W. Untersuchungen über Entwicklung und Fortpflanzung in der Gattung Dunaliella. & Lilitska, G.G. Dunaliella salina are found in high salinity environments such as salted brines, salt evaporation ponds, and hypersaline lakes [7]. Dunaliellales. Glycerol is produced through two metabolic processes: intracellular synthesis through a photosynthetic product and metabolism of starch in the cell [15]. Chen H., Lu Y. and Jiang J. It produces a distinct pink and red colour often characteristic of saltern ponds [2]. 11. [11] D. salina preserves a high concentration of glycerol by maintaining a cell membrane with low permeability to glycerol and synthesizing large quantities of glycerol from starch as a response to high extracellular salt concentration, which is why it tends to thrive in highly salinic environments. He initially named the organism Haematococcus salinus and Protococcus. [3] Sexual reproduction begins when two D. salina’s flagella touch leading to gamete fusion. Shariati M., Hadi M.R. [10] determined the sexual activity of "D. salina" from evaluating ratio of zygotes and zygospores to total cells observed in culture. The genus was first described by Teodoresco (Teodoresco, 1905) with the type of species being Dunaliella salina, and … Dunaliella is known for its antioxidant activity … are motile, unicellular, rod to ovoid shaped green algae, which are common in marine (salient) waters. D. salina has adapted to survive in high salinity environments by accumulating glycerol to balance osmotic pressure. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Glycerol is used as a means by which to maintain both osmotic balance and enzymatic activity. Zhao, R., Cao, Y., Xu, H., Lv, L., Qiao, D. & Cao, Y. DOI: 10.5897/AJB10.2392. Dunaliella salina is famous for much more than causing the waters of Las Coloradas's salt-ponds to turn pink: The alga is grown commercially as a source of beta-carotene. It is a whole food supplement. Dunaliella Salinais a green algae best known for turning lakes red around the world. Known for its anti-oxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is used in cosmetics … Craigie JS, McLachlan J. Glycerol as a photosynthetic product in Dunaliella tertiolecta Butcher. Dunaliella Salina Powder is known as the "power source of cells" and "protective agent of life" by the world scientific community due to its rich and unique life nutrient elements. Among various carotenoid-rich microalgae, D. salina has the greatest carotene concentration making up ~10% algal dry weight[6]. Chen H., Lu Y. and Jiang J. [3] studied the effects of salinity to maximize β-carotene production and found carotenoid concentration increases with increasing salinity. Therefore, D. salina has a much less overall impact to colouration and archaeal communities contribute more to the red colouration of hypersaline lakes. D. Salina is a unicellular biflagellate red-coloured alga which synthesises massive amounts of carotenoid pigments, colouring the cells a very bright red. The ability to tolerate high salt concentrations is advantageous, since competition is minimal as salt high salt concentrations. It acts as a powerful antioxidant for skin. Dunaliella Salina is a genus of the algae family Dunaliellaceae. [5][6][7] Different technologies are used, from low-tech extensive cultivation in lagoons to intensive cultivation at high cell densities under carefully controlled conditions. Tawan Chatsungnoen, Yusuf Chisti, in Biofuels from Algae (Second Edition), 2019. What makes it so special is that it actually thrives in harsh … 152–157. Web. 8. 22 Nov. 2012. Betatene ® is a naturally sourced beta-carotene derived from algae (Dunaliella salina) and part of the broad beta-carotene product range BASF offers. Dunaliella species are able to tolerate varying NaCl concentrations, ranging from 0.2% to approximately 35% [3]. [9] studied the mitochondrial and plastid genome of D. salina. Ben-Amotz A, Avron M. Accumulation of metabolites by halotolerant algae and its industrial potential. The cell membrane of D. salina has low permeability to glycerol to prevent glycerol from leaving the cell [13], accounting for the high concentration inside the cell. Process development and evaluation for algal glycerol production. Dunaliella salina is a model organism to study the effects of saline adaptation in algae [1]. doi: 10.1002/bit.260230608. Borowitzka, M.J. & Siva, C.J. Michel Felix Dunal first discovered "D. … This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 17:06. Farahat N., Rabhi M., Falleh H., Jouini J., Abdelly C. and Smaoui A. [8] sequenced five species of Dunaliella using their 18S ribosomal RNA genes. utilizing the 18S rDNA gene.” Letters in Applied Microbiology, 2000. (2011). Olmos et al. Few organisms can survive like D. salina does in such highly saline conditions as salt evaporation ponds. Dunaliella salina is nature's richest source of natural beta-carotene, each gram contains around10-20mg of beta-carotene, plus other carotenoids and nutrients.Research shows that natural dietary beta … DOI: 10.5772/19046. Journal of Phycology 47(6): 1454-1460. Can J Bot. Dunaliella salina lacks a rigid wall, and the plasma membrane alone makes the cell susceptible to osmotic pressure [1]. Today, the algae is being studied for various health benefits. This combination offers potential in biotechnological applications for the purpose of commercial products such as lipstick due to β-carotene production [4]. In order to maximize β-carotene production, D. salina should be grown in 1.5M to 3.0 M NaCl concentration until a stable cell density is reached then increased to 4.4 – 5.0 M NaCl concentration for maximum carotenoid production [3]. , 6. Wengmann K. “Osmotic Regulation of photosynthetic Glycerol Production in Dunaliella.” Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1971. DOI: 10.1016/0960-8524(91)90162-D, 5. Mokady S, Abramovici A, Cogau U. 10.1371/journal.pone.0037578, 16. After germination, the zygotes release up to 32 haploid daughter cells. Although there is a much greater abundance of D. salina, the red pigments on the cell membrane of archaea are more visibly accessible. 2 It is often referred to as a halophile (literally, “salt-loving”) alga because it grows only in high-salt … [2], D. salina can reproduce asexually through division of motile vegetative cells and sexually through the fusion of two equal gametes into a singular zygote. Martinez et al. 1981;23:1267–1287. The D. salina zygote is extraordinarily hardy and can survive exposure to fresh water and to dryness. In addition, Smith et al. Heakal F., Hefny M., El-Tawab A., “Electrochemical behaviour of 340L stainless steel in high saline and sulphate solutions containing alga Dunaliella salina and β-carotene. Dunaliella has two flagella of equal length and has a single cup-like chloroplast that often contains a central pyrenoid. In simple terms, it means, these … Johnson et al. Dunaliella salina can reproduce asexually, sexually and through division of motile vegetative cells[1]. High extracellular salt concentration drives the synthesis of glucose. 1937; 88:236–268. [9] found that both genomes are highly occupied with introns: mitochondrial DNA (58%) and plastid DNA (65.5%). Volume 3: Chlorophyta. Johnson M., Johnson E., MacElroy R., Speer H. and Bruff B. Web. However, despite the positive contributions of D. salina, commercial production is limited due to the low productivity of β-carotene [3]. Dunaliella Salinais a green micro-algae typically found in sea salt fields around the world. They are contained in the chloroplasts in lipid globules[9]. D. salina comes in various shapes and symmetries depending on the conditions in its current environment. 1983;37:95–119. Compounds, 2010, DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.11.028.

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